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Florence has for many years had a restricted zone in the centre of the city. The purpose of the zone was to limit the car traffic to drivers with specific needs for being in the area. Permits are only given to residents, public service vehicles, hotel guests, workshops, etc.

It was not possible for the police to avoid a large number of cars without permit from entering the zone. Florence, therefore, decided to introduce electronic access control by 1 January 2004.

The electronic access control immediately reduced the traffic with 20 per cent, while the number of users of buses increased significantly. Therefore, the system can be considered a success. Still, in spite of the increased risk of being detected as an intruder, the number of illegal visitors is as high as 27 per cent.